The Age of the Earth

John Doughty

June 28, 2015

http://www.icr.org/article/1842/

1. Niagara Falls: Young Earth Monument

1. Age of Niagara Falls based on Uniformitarian Rate of Erosion from Niagara Escarpment to Present Location:

6.8 miles x 5,280 feet/mile = 35,904 total feet eroded

35,904 feet divided by 4 ft/year = 8,976 years

1. Maximum Time of Erosion based on Uniformitarian Rate between Lake Erie & Lake Ontario (Upper Limit):

Total Length of Niagara River = 36 miles

36 miles x 5,280 feet/mile = 190,080 feet

190,080 feet divided by 4 ft/year = 47,520 years

1. Geological Considerations of Niagara Falls

1. Constant Rate? The rate of erosion is depended upon the amount of water which flows in the Niagara River. The present discharge of the Niagara River is 204,800 cubic feet/second.  The volume of water in the Niagara River is dependant upon the water level of Lake Erie, which is predicated on annual precipitation. The basin area of Lake Erie is 264,000 square miles.
2. The 1950 treaty regulated the flow over Niagara Falls to be not less than 100,000 cubic ft. per second (cfs).  At all other times, the flow must not be less than 50,000 cfs, (1,416 cu m/s).
3. More than 168,000 cubic metres (6 million cubic ft.) of water go over the crestline of the Falls every minute during peak daytime tourist hours.  This is 6,000,000 cu feet/minute divided 60 sec/1 minute = 100,000 cu feet/second.
4. The rapids above the Falls reach a maximum speed of 40 km/hr or 25 mph, with the fastest speeds occur at the Falls themselves (recorded up to 68 mph.)
5. As observed from the first Europeans (Louis Hennepin, 1678) to visit the falls over the last four centuries, the canyon has eroded at a rate of four feet per year.
6. The Niagara Falls system represents an hourglass to measure time.  Lake Erie is the top bulb and Lake Ontario is the bottom bulb.  The Niagara River current is the grains of sand.  The Falls represent the bottleneck.
7. What is the Future of Niagara Falls?  A Niagara Parks website says:

1. Rate of Erosion of Continents:

Rate of Erosion (time to erode continents) =

Mass of Continents above sea level

Divided by the rate of continental erosion =

383 million billion tons/ 27.5 billion tons per year = 14 million years

III. Rate of Sedimentation in Oceans:

Rate of Sedimentation (time to build up sediments in ocean) =

Mass of sediments in ocean

Divided by the rate of continental erosion =

410 million billion tons/ 27.5 billion tons per year = 15 million years

1. Salinity of Oceans (Sodium) If Earth were 1 billion years old, salinity would be 10X present amount.

Evolutionists teach Earth is 4 Billion Years old.

1. Age of Earth based on Geologic Column, not Radiometric Dating

• “The only chronometric scale applicable in geologic history for the stratigraphic classification of rocks and for dating geologic events exactly is furnished by the fossils.  Owing to the irreversibility of evolution, they offer an unambiguous timescale for relative age determinations and for world-wide correlations of rocks.”  Schindewolf, O.H., “Comments on Some Stratigraphic Terms,” American Journal of Science, vol. 255 (June 1957), pp. 394-399.

1. Circular Reasoning in Age of Earth/Fossil Correlation:

• “Contrary to what most scientists write, the fossil record does not support the Darwinian theory of evolution because it is this theory (there are several) which we use to interpret the fossil record.  By doing so, we are guilty of circular reasoning if we then say the fossil record supports this theory.”  West, Ronald R., “Paleontology and Uniformitarianism,” Compass, vol. 45, no. 4 (May 1968), pp. 212-218.

• “A circular argument arises: Interpret the fossil record in the terms of a particular theory of evolution, inspect the interpretation, and note that it confirms the theory.  Well, it would, wouldn’t it?”  Kemp, Tom, “A Fresh Look at the Fossil Record,” New Scientist, Vol. 108, Dec. 5, 1985, p. 67.

• “And this poses something of a problem: If we date the rocks by the fossils, how can we then turn around and talk about patterns of evolutionary change through time in the fossil record?”  Eldridge, Niles, Time Frames: The Rethinking of Darwinian Evolution and the Theory of Punctuated Equilibria (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985), p. 52.

1. Assumptions:
1. Constant Rate
2. Initial Conditions
3. Closed System (No Contamination)

1. Short Half-Life, 5,730 years, only good for organic remains, can date accurately up to 20,000 years, maximum 50,000.
2. Biblical Flood Assumption provides contamination problem
3. Dating “Dima”

• “The troubles of the radiocarbon dating method are undeniably deep and serious. Despite 35 years of technological refinement and better understanding, the underlying assumptions have been strongly challenged, and warnings are out that radiocarbon may soon find itself in a crisis situation.  Continuing use of the method depends on a “fix it as we go” approach, allowing for contamination here, fractionation there, and calibration whenever possible.  It should be no surprise, then, that fully half of the dates are rejected.  The wonder is, surely, that the remaining half come to be accepted.”  Lee, Robert E. “Radiocarbon, Ages in Error,” Anthropological Journal of Canada, vol. 19, no. 3 (1981), p. 9.

• “No matter how “useful: it is, though, the radiocarbon method is still not capable of yielding accurate and reliable results.  There are gross discrepancies, the chronology is uneven and relative, and the accepted dates are actually selected dates.”  Lee, Robert E. “Radiocarbon, Ages in Error,” Anthropological Journal of Canada, vol. 19, no. 3 (1981), p. 29.

• 1. Discarded Dates; those which do not agree with the geologic (column) date.
• 2. Discrepant Dates; those which are odds with stratigraphic or paleontological dates
• 3. Discordent Date: two different methods which disagree.

• “Fifteen years ago, radiometric age determinations on minerals and rocks were so startling that “absolute age” became a password.  Intensive research with successive improvements in the K-Ar, Rb-Sr, U-Pb methods, however, revealed that geologic processes influence isotopic systems and that the age measurements are analytical values that commonly require geological interpretation.”  Goldich, S.S. “Fallacious Isochrons and Wrong Numbers,” Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 4, no. 4, 1972, p. 322.

1. Many Uniformitarian Estimates Give Various Dates, not Proving Young or Old Earth, but Showing the Fallacy of Uniformitarian Assumptions:

Process Age of Earth in Years

1. Decay of earth’s magnetic field 10,000
2. Influx of radiocarbon to the earth 10,000
3. Continuous deposition of geologic column too small
4. Influx of juvenile water into oceans 340,000,000
5. Influx of magma from mantle to form crust 500,000,000
6. Growth of oldest living part of biosphere 5,000
7. Origin of human civilizations 5,000
8. Efflux of Helium-4 into the atmosphere 1,750-175,000
9. Development of total human population 4,000
10. Influx of sediment into the ocean via rivers 30,000,000
11. Erosion of sediment from continents 14,000,000
12. Leaching of sodium from continents 1,000,000
13. Leaching of chlorine from continents 1,000,000
14. Leaching of calcium from continents 12,000,000
15. Influx of carbonate into the ocean 100,000
16. Influx of sulphate into the ocean 10,000,000
17. Influx of chlorine into the ocean 164,000,000
18. Influx of calcium into the ocean 1,000,000
19. Influx of uranium into the ocean 1,260,000
20. Efflux of oil from traps by fluid pressure 10,000-100,000
21. Formation of radiogenic lead by neutron capture too small to measure
22. Formation of radiogenic strontium by neutron capt. too small to measure
23. Decay of natural remanent paleomagnetism 100,000
24. Parentless polonium halos too small to measure
25. Decay of uranium with initial :radiogenic” lead too small to measure
26. Decay of potassium with entrapped argon too small to measure
27. Formation of river deltas 5,000
28. Submarine oil seepage into oceans 50,000,000
29. Decay of natural plutonium 80,000,000
30. Decay of lines of galaxies 10,000,000
31. Expanding interstellar gas 60,000,000
32. Decay of short-period comets 10,000
33. Decay of long-period comets 1,000,000
34. Influx of small particles to the sun 83,000
35. Maximum life of meteor showers 5,000,000
36. Instability of rings of Saturn 1,000,000
37. Escape of methane from Titan 20,000,000
38. Accumulation of dust on the moon Uncertain
39. Deceleration of earth by tidal friction 500,000,000
40. Cooling of the earth by heat efflux 24,000,000
41. Accumulation of calcareous ooze on sea floor 5,000,000
42. Influx of sodium into the ocean by rivers 62,000,000
43. Influx of nickel into the ocean by rivers 9,000
44. Influx of magnesium into the ocean by rivers 45,000,000
45. Influx of silicon into the ocean by rivers 8,000
46. Influx of potassium into the ocean by rivers 11,000,000
47. Influx of copper into the ocean by rivers 50,000
48. Influx of gold into the ocean by rivers 560,000
49. Influx of silver into the ocean by rivers 2,100,000
50. Influx of mercury into the ocean by rivers 42,000
51. Influx of lead into the ocean by rivers 2,000
52. Influx of tin into the ocean by rivers 100,000
53. Influx of aluminum into the ocean by rivers 100
54. Influx of lithium into the ocean by rivers 20,000,000
55. Influx of titanium into the ocean by rivers 160
56. Influx of chromium into the ocean by rivers 350
57. Influx of manganese into the ocean by rivers 1,400
58. Influx of iron into the ocean by rivers 140
59. Influx of cobalt into the ocean by rivers 18,000
60. Influx of zinc into the ocean by rivers 180,000
61. Influx of rubidium into the ocean by rivers 270,000
62. Influx of strontium into the ocean by rivers 19,000,000
63. Influx of bismuth into the ocean by rivers 45,000
64. Influx of thorium into the ocean by rivers 350
65. Influx of antimony into the ocean by rivers 350,000
66. Influx of tungsten into the ocean by rivers 1,000
67. Influx of barium into the ocean by rivers 84,000
68. Influx of molybdenum into the ocean by rivers 500,000

References Provided in What is Creation Science? Henry M. Morris & Gary Parker,  San Diego: Master Books, 1982, pp. 288-293.

1. Scriptures:

Ecclesiastes 7:24  What has been is remote and exceedingly mysterious. Who can discover it? NASB

Job 11:7  “Can you fathom the mysteries of God? Can you probe the limits of the Almighty