The Age of the Earth
June 28, 2015
- Niagara Falls: Young Earth Monument
- Age of Niagara Falls based on Uniformitarian Rate of Erosion from Niagara Escarpment to Present Location:
6.8 miles x 5,280 feet/mile = 35,904 total feet eroded
35,904 feet divided by 4 ft/year = 8,976 years
- Maximum Time of Erosion based on Uniformitarian Rate between Lake Erie & Lake Ontario (Upper Limit):
Total Length of Niagara River = 36 miles
36 miles x 5,280 feet/mile = 190,080 feet
190,080 feet divided by 4 ft/year = 47,520 years
- Geological Considerations of Niagara Falls
- Constant Rate? The rate of erosion is depended upon the amount of water which flows in the Niagara River. The present discharge of the Niagara River is 204,800 cubic feet/second. The volume of water in the Niagara River is dependant upon the water level of Lake Erie, which is predicated on annual precipitation. The basin area of Lake Erie is 264,000 square miles.
- The 1950 treaty regulated the flow over Niagara Falls to be not less than 100,000 cubic ft. per second (cfs). At all other times, the flow must not be less than 50,000 cfs, (1,416 cu m/s).
- More than 168,000 cubic metres (6 million cubic ft.) of water go over the crestline of the Falls every minute during peak daytime tourist hours. This is 6,000,000 cu feet/minute divided 60 sec/1 minute = 100,000 cu feet/second.
- The rapids above the Falls reach a maximum speed of 40 km/hr or 25 mph, with the fastest speeds occur at the Falls themselves (recorded up to 68 mph.)
- As observed from the first Europeans (Louis Hennepin, 1678) to visit the falls over the last four centuries, the canyon has eroded at a rate of four feet per year.
- The Niagara Falls system represents an hourglass to measure time. Lake Erie is the top bulb and Lake Ontario is the bottom bulb. The Niagara River current is the grains of sand. The Falls represent the bottleneck.
- What is the Future of Niagara Falls? A Niagara Parks website says:
- “The falls could be replaced by a series of rapids. 50,000 years from now, at the present rate of erosion, the remaining 20 miles to Lake Erie will have been undermined. There won’t be a falls anymore, but there will still be a river at work.” http://www.niagaraparks.com/about-niagara-falls/geology-facts-figures.html
- Rate of Erosion of Continents:
Rate of Erosion (time to erode continents) =
Mass of Continents above sea level
Divided by the rate of continental erosion =
383 million billion tons/ 27.5 billion tons per year = 14 million years
III. Rate of Sedimentation in Oceans:
Rate of Sedimentation (time to build up sediments in ocean) =
Mass of sediments in ocean
Divided by the rate of continental erosion =
410 million billion tons/ 27.5 billion tons per year = 15 million years
- Salinity of Oceans (Sodium) If Earth were 1 billion years old, salinity would be 10X present amount.
Evolutionists teach Earth is 4 Billion Years old.
- Age of Earth based on Geologic Column, not Radiometric Dating
- “The only chronometric scale applicable in geologic history for the stratigraphic classification of rocks and for dating geologic events exactly is furnished by the fossils. Owing to the irreversibility of evolution, they offer an unambiguous timescale for relative age determinations and for world-wide correlations of rocks.” Schindewolf, O.H., “Comments on Some Stratigraphic Terms,” American Journal of Science, vol. 255 (June 1957), pp. 394-399.
- Circular Reasoning in Age of Earth/Fossil Correlation:
- “Contrary to what most scientists write, the fossil record does not support the Darwinian theory of evolution because it is this theory (there are several) which we use to interpret the fossil record. By doing so, we are guilty of circular reasoning if we then say the fossil record supports this theory.” West, Ronald R., “Paleontology and Uniformitarianism,” Compass, vol. 45, no. 4 (May 1968), pp. 212-218.
- “A circular argument arises: Interpret the fossil record in the terms of a particular theory of evolution, inspect the interpretation, and note that it confirms the theory. Well, it would, wouldn’t it?” Kemp, Tom, “A Fresh Look at the Fossil Record,” New Scientist, Vol. 108, Dec. 5, 1985, p. 67.
- “And this poses something of a problem: If we date the rocks by the fossils, how can we then turn around and talk about patterns of evolutionary change through time in the fossil record?” Eldridge, Niles, Time Frames: The Rethinking of Darwinian Evolution and the Theory of Punctuated Equilibria (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985), p. 52.
VII. Radiocarbon Dating (C-14 Dating):
- Constant Rate
- Initial Conditions
- Closed System (No Contamination)
- Short Half-Life, 5,730 years, only good for organic remains, can date accurately up to 20,000 years, maximum 50,000.
- Biblical Flood Assumption provides contamination problem
- Dating “Dima”
- “The troubles of the radiocarbon dating method are undeniably deep and serious. Despite 35 years of technological refinement and better understanding, the underlying assumptions have been strongly challenged, and warnings are out that radiocarbon may soon find itself in a crisis situation. Continuing use of the method depends on a “fix it as we go” approach, allowing for contamination here, fractionation there, and calibration whenever possible. It should be no surprise, then, that fully half of the dates are rejected. The wonder is, surely, that the remaining half come to be accepted.” Lee, Robert E. “Radiocarbon, Ages in Error,” Anthropological Journal of Canada, vol. 19, no. 3 (1981), p. 9.
- “No matter how “useful: it is, though, the radiocarbon method is still not capable of yielding accurate and reliable results. There are gross discrepancies, the chronology is uneven and relative, and the accepted dates are actually selected dates.” Lee, Robert E. “Radiocarbon, Ages in Error,” Anthropological Journal of Canada, vol. 19, no. 3 (1981), p. 29.
VIII. Problems with Radiometric Dating:
- 1. Discarded Dates; those which do not agree with the geologic (column) date.
- 2. Discrepant Dates; those which are odds with stratigraphic or paleontological dates
- 3. Discordent Date: two different methods which disagree.
- “Fifteen years ago, radiometric age determinations on minerals and rocks were so startling that “absolute age” became a password. Intensive research with successive improvements in the K-Ar, Rb-Sr, U-Pb methods, however, revealed that geologic processes influence isotopic systems and that the age measurements are analytical values that commonly require geological interpretation.” Goldich, S.S. “Fallacious Isochrons and Wrong Numbers,” Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 4, no. 4, 1972, p. 322.
- Many Uniformitarian Estimates Give Various Dates, not Proving Young or Old Earth, but Showing the Fallacy of Uniformitarian Assumptions:
Process Age of Earth in Years
- Decay of earth’s magnetic field 10,000
- Influx of radiocarbon to the earth 10,000
- Continuous deposition of geologic column too small
- Influx of juvenile water into oceans 340,000,000
- Influx of magma from mantle to form crust 500,000,000
- Growth of oldest living part of biosphere 5,000
- Origin of human civilizations 5,000
- Efflux of Helium-4 into the atmosphere 1,750-175,000
- Development of total human population 4,000
- Influx of sediment into the ocean via rivers 30,000,000
- Erosion of sediment from continents 14,000,000
- Leaching of sodium from continents 1,000,000
- Leaching of chlorine from continents 1,000,000
- Leaching of calcium from continents 12,000,000
- Influx of carbonate into the ocean 100,000
- Influx of sulphate into the ocean 10,000,000
- Influx of chlorine into the ocean 164,000,000
- Influx of calcium into the ocean 1,000,000
- Influx of uranium into the ocean 1,260,000
- Efflux of oil from traps by fluid pressure 10,000-100,000
- Formation of radiogenic lead by neutron capture too small to measure
- Formation of radiogenic strontium by neutron capt. too small to measure
- Decay of natural remanent paleomagnetism 100,000
- Parentless polonium halos too small to measure
- Decay of uranium with initial :radiogenic” lead too small to measure
- Decay of potassium with entrapped argon too small to measure
- Formation of river deltas 5,000
- Submarine oil seepage into oceans 50,000,000
- Decay of natural plutonium 80,000,000
- Decay of lines of galaxies 10,000,000
- Expanding interstellar gas 60,000,000
- Decay of short-period comets 10,000
- Decay of long-period comets 1,000,000
- Influx of small particles to the sun 83,000
- Maximum life of meteor showers 5,000,000
- Instability of rings of Saturn 1,000,000
- Escape of methane from Titan 20,000,000
- Accumulation of dust on the moon Uncertain
- Deceleration of earth by tidal friction 500,000,000
- Cooling of the earth by heat efflux 24,000,000
- Accumulation of calcareous ooze on sea floor 5,000,000
- Influx of sodium into the ocean by rivers 62,000,000
- Influx of nickel into the ocean by rivers 9,000
- Influx of magnesium into the ocean by rivers 45,000,000
- Influx of silicon into the ocean by rivers 8,000
- Influx of potassium into the ocean by rivers 11,000,000
- Influx of copper into the ocean by rivers 50,000
- Influx of gold into the ocean by rivers 560,000
- Influx of silver into the ocean by rivers 2,100,000
- Influx of mercury into the ocean by rivers 42,000
- Influx of lead into the ocean by rivers 2,000
- Influx of tin into the ocean by rivers 100,000
- Influx of aluminum into the ocean by rivers 100
- Influx of lithium into the ocean by rivers 20,000,000
- Influx of titanium into the ocean by rivers 160
- Influx of chromium into the ocean by rivers 350
- Influx of manganese into the ocean by rivers 1,400
- Influx of iron into the ocean by rivers 140
- Influx of cobalt into the ocean by rivers 18,000
- Influx of zinc into the ocean by rivers 180,000
- Influx of rubidium into the ocean by rivers 270,000
- Influx of strontium into the ocean by rivers 19,000,000
- Influx of bismuth into the ocean by rivers 45,000
- Influx of thorium into the ocean by rivers 350
- Influx of antimony into the ocean by rivers 350,000
- Influx of tungsten into the ocean by rivers 1,000
- Influx of barium into the ocean by rivers 84,000
- Influx of molybdenum into the ocean by rivers 500,000
References Provided in What is Creation Science? Henry M. Morris & Gary Parker, San Diego: Master Books, 1982, pp. 288-293.
Ecclesiastes 7:24 What has been is remote and exceedingly mysterious. Who can discover it? NASB
Job 11:7 “Can you fathom the mysteries of God? Can you probe the limits of the Almighty